The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What are remedies?

In trade, remedies are the measures – such as fines or tariffs – that a signatory to an agreement can use to…

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What is a dispute resolution process?

Dispute resolution is the mutually agreed process by which disagreements over the interpretation, application or breach of a trade agreement can be…

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What is dynamic alignment?

Dynamic alignment is the idea that parties to a trade agreement maintain equivalent regulatory standards to each other in future. This is…

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What is cross-retaliation?

Cross-retaliation refers to the idea that parties to a trade agreement can take retaliatory action, such as implementing tariffs, in areas not…

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What is a ratchet clause?

A ratchet clause refers to a commitment in a trade agreement that locks in any future increase in regulatory standards. This is…

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What is non-regression?

Non-regression is the idea that different parties to a trade agreement commit in future to at least maintaining their current level of…

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When a new country joins the EU, does free movement apply straight away?

When new countries join the EU, existing member states have in general been allowed to apply restrictions on the free movement rights of citizens from new member states for a transitional period.
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What is the consent procedure?

The consent mechanism is a decision-making procedure in the EU whereby the EU Council must seek the consent of the European Parliament.
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What is Article 49?

Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union sets out the procedure for countries to join the EU. Read this fact to find out more.
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Will I be able to live in an EU country after Brexit?

If you already live in an EU country prior to the end of the transition period at the end of 2020, you will have the right to continue to live in that country with broadly the same rights as before, subject to any additional requirements that EU countries insist on.
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Who is the UK negotiating new trade agreements with?

As of September 2020, the UK was negotiating trade agreements with the EU, the US, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
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Who is Maroš Šefčovič?

Maroš Šefčovič is the EU’s representative on the UK-EU Joint Committee, which was set up to manage the implementation of the Withdrawal Agreement.
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