The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

ALL A Changing EU Constitution Economy Governance after Brexit Policies Politics and Society Public Opinion Relationship with the EU Role in the World Scotland Union Unlocked

What is a windfall tax?

A windfall tax is levied against companies deemed to have made excessively high profits, or a ‘windfall’, from circumstances they themselves did not engineer. Learn more here.
Read More

What are financial services?

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance sector to individuals, households and firms in order to facilitate various kinds…

Read More

What is the Confederation of British Industry?

The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) is a non-profit organisation which represents the interests of 190,000 business, making it the largest such…

Read More

What is the “Northern Powerhouse”?

In June 2014, then-Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne stated that England’s northern cities were ‘collectively not strong enough’ and argued that…

Read More

What is HS2?

HS2 (High Speed 2) is a planned new high-speed railway line between London and the midlands and north of England, comprised of…

Read More

What is Nord Stream 2?

Nord Stream 2 is a system of two offshore natural gas pipelines running from Ust-Luga in Russia to Lubmin in Germany. This…

Read More

What is the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF)?

The MFF – or Multiannual Financial Framework – is the overall EU budget for every seven-year period, setting out funding for the…

Read More

What is cabotage?

Cabotage refers to the transportation of goods between two places within the same country, by a company from another country. Under EU…

Read More

Who is the UK negotiating new trade agreements with?

The UK has concluded ‘rollover’ agreements with 36 countries or economic groups – covering 66 countries or territories – which replicate the terms of trade covered by EU agreements.
Read More

What is net migration?

Net migration is the sum of the number of people who move to the UK to live for at least a year…

Read More

What is state aid?

An advantage given by national authorities to economic actors that affects trade between member states can be considered state aid under EU…

Read More

What is manufacturing?

Manufacturing encompasses all economic activities that transform raw materials into either intermediate goods (such as steel bars) or final products (such as cars)….

Read More