The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What are the ‘euro-ins’ and ‘euro-outs’?

There are 19 ‘euro-ins’ and eight ‘euro-outs’ in the EU. The euro-ins are the members states that use the euro as their currency.
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What are EU directives?

Directives are the most common form of EU legal act. In contrast to a regulation, a directive does not apply directly at the national level.
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What are EU regulations?

An EU regulation is a legal act that applies directly at the national level. Read our fact to find out more.
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Was there a referendum in the UK to join the EU in 1973?

No, but the UK did hold a referendum on whether to remain a member of the European Community in 1975. Read this fact for more.
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What did EU membership mean for the UK?

The UK joined the EU in 1973 and left in 2020. As a member state, the UK was bound by the EU treaties which set out the privileges and obligations of membership.
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How does the EU make laws?

The European Parliament and the Council of Ministers amend the draft proposals and vote on whether these proposals should become EU law.
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Why was European integration launched?

The foundations of European integration were laid in the aftermath of the Second World War. Read more in this fact.
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