The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What are ‘WTO terms’?

WTO terms is a way of describing a trading relationship between countries that is based only on WTO rules.
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What is the Immigration Bill?

The Immigration Bill removes the free movement rights of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens in the UK, which derived from the UK’s EU membership.
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What is the Lugano Convention?

The Lugano Convention 2007 is an international treaty negotiated by the EU on behalf of its member states, with Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
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Who is Matt Hancock?

Matt Hancock is the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, having been appointed in July 2018 under Theresa May.
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Who is Rishi Sunak?

Rishi Sunak is the Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was appointed on 13 February 2020 following the resignation of Sajid Javid.
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What is the Eurogroup?

The Eurogroup is the meeting of the finance ministers of the euro zone member states. Read this fact to find out more.
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What is the Schengen area?

It is an agreement between 22 EU member states and the 4 countries of EFTA to remove regular checks on the movement of people between them.
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What are coronabonds?

Coronabonds are an idea mooted by several eurozone countries to issue collective debt to combat the economic impact of Covid-19.
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Who is David Frost?

David Frost is Boris Johnson’s Europe advisor and chief negotiator for the talks on the UK’s future relationship with the EU.
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What is the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF)?

The MFF is the overall EU budget for every seven-year period, setting out funding for the EU’s major programmes.
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What is the World Trade Organisation (WTO)?

The WTO was set up in 1994 as the result of a major overhaul of the system of trade rules set up after the Second World War.
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What is the Withdrawal Agreement Act?

The Act provided the means for the UK parliament to move law-making powers back to the UK from the EU. Read this fact to find out more.
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