The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is co-decision?

Co-decision is part of the ‘ordinary legislative procedure’ in the EU, whereby the European Parliament and the Council of the EU have to jointly agree on legislation in order for it to be adopted.
Read More

How many MEPs are there in the European Parliament?

Currently, there are 705 MEPs in the European Parliament; that is, 704 plus the president. Read this fact to find out more.
Read More

Which countries are in the EU?

The EU has 27 member states, each of whom joined in phases. Read this fact to find out more about these phases.
Read More

Where does the European Parliament meet?

The official seat of the European Parliament is in Strasbourg, in eastern France. Read this fact to find out more.
Read More

When did the UK leave the EU?

The UK left the EU at 11pm on 31 January 2020. After the Withdrawal Agreement was ratified, the UK entered a transition period running to the end of 2020.
Read More

What are Directorates-General?

DGs are departments within the European Commission that develop and implement EU policies across a range of areas, from agriculture to trade.
Read More

What is the Conference of Presidents?

It is the top political body within the European Parliament where its president and the chairs of each of the political groupings meet.
Read More

Who are the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL)?

The Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green left (GUE/NGL) are a left-wing grouping within the European Parliament.
Read More

Who are the Greens/European Free Alliance (G/EFA)?

The Greens/European Free Alliance (G/EFA) are the main environmentalist grouping within the European Parliament
Read More

Who are the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR)?

The European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) are a centre-right grouping within the European Parliament.
Read More

What is Renew Europe?

Renew Europe is a liberal, centrist grouping within the European Parliament, based on Emmanuel Macron’s Renaissance Coalition in France.
Read More

Who are the Socialists & Democrats (S&D)?

The Socialists & Democrats (S&D) are the main centre-left grouping in the European Parliament. Read this fact to find out more.
Read More