The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is the European People’s Party (EPP)?

The European People’s Party (EPP) are the main centre-right grouping in the European Parliament. Read this fact to find out more.
Read More

Who is Marine Le Pen?

Marine Le Pen is a far-right, eurosceptic politician who leads the Rassemblement National (National Rally) party in France.
Read More

What is the Identity and Democracy (ID) Group?

The Identity and Democracy group is a new far-right political grouping in the European Parliament, led by Italian MEP Matteo Salvini.
Read More

Who is Frans Timmermans?

Frans Timmermans is one of three senior commissioners in the European Commission of Ursula von der Leyen. Read this fact to find out more.
Read More

What is the Spitzenkandidat process?

The Spitzenkandidat process is an informal arrangement that was used in 2014 to elect the president of the European Commission.
Read More

What is the College of Commissioners?

The College of Commissioners is the body of senior political figures in the European Commission, headed by its president.
Read More

What are MEPs?

Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are EU citizens’ direct representatives in the European Parliament.
Read More

What is qualified majority voting?

QMV is a mechanism used within the European Council and Council of the EU to take decisions without the need for unanimity.
Read More

What is the European Central Bank?

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the overseeing central bank for the 19 EU member states that use the euro.
Read More

What is the High Representative for Foreign Affairs?

The EU’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs performs functions for the EU equivalent to a foreign minister at the national level.
Read More

What happened to the UK’s seats in the European Parliament?

Some of the UK’s seats have been used to address the under-representation of some member states. Read this fact to find out more.
Read More

How do the European Parliament elections work?

In Great Britain, a list system was used that divided the country into 11 electoral regions, with voters casting a single vote for their preferred party.
Read More