The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is the Lugano Convention?

The Lugano Convention 2007 is an international treaty negotiated by the EU on behalf of its member states (and by Denmark separately…

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What is the Withdrawal Agreement Bill (WAB)?

This is the implementing bill that gives the Withdrawal Agreement negotiated between the UK and the EU effect in UK law. It…

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What is the Supreme Court?

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the UK and the place of last resort to appeal judgments made in lower…

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What is a flextension?

This term describes the flexible extension policy adopted by the EU27 when the UK was first granted an extension to the Article…

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What is proroguing Parliament?

Proroguing is the term used to describe shutting down Parliament. The process of prorogation happens regularly, normally in Spring at the end of…

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What is GATT Article 24?

Article 24 is a provision of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is a World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement.
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When did the UK leave the EU?

The UK ceased to be a member of the EU at 11pm on 31 January 2020. After the Withdrawal Agreement was ratified,…

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What are competences?

Competences are the areas of policy that particular governments have control over or responsibility for managing. At the EU level, some are…

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What is the European Scrutiny Committee?

This is a committee of MPs in the House of Commons with responsibility for assessing the importance of draft legislation submitted by…

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What is the European Statutory Instruments Committee?

This is a relatively new committee of MPs in the House of Commons (with an equivalent in the House of Lords), created…

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What are rules of origin?

These rules allow governments to determine where goods originate from (i.e. where they have been produced or manufactured rather than simply where…

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What is the Common Travel Area?

It is an agreement between the UK and Ireland that allows citizens from either country to travel freely between both without the need for passport checks.
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