The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is the Lugano Convention?

The Lugano Convention 2007 is an international treaty negotiated by the EU on behalf of its member states, with Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
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What is the Withdrawal Agreement Act?

The Act provided the means for the UK parliament to move law-making powers back to the UK from the EU. Read this fact to find out more.
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What is the Supreme Court?

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the UK and the place of last resort to appeal judgments made in lower courts.
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What is proroguing Parliament?

Proroguing is the term used to describe shutting down Parliament. Read this fact to find out more about what's involved.
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What is GATT Article 24?

Article 24 is a provision of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is a World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement.
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When did the UK leave the EU?

The UK left the EU at 11pm on 31 January 2020. After the Withdrawal Agreement was ratified, the UK entered a transition period running to the end of 2020.
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What are competences?

Competences are the areas of policy that governments have control over or responsibility for managing. Read this fact to find out more.
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What is the European Scrutiny Committee?

This is a committee of MPs in the House of Commons with responsibility for assessing the importance of draft legislation submitted by the EU.
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What is the European Statutory Instruments Committee?

This is a relatively new committee of MPs in the House of Commons, created by the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018, to ‘sift’ through any changes made by ministers to the EU law that will be converted into UK law once we leave the EU.
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What does a backstop mean?

Read this fact to find out what the backstop means for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in the context of the Brexit negotiations
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What is regulatory alignment?

In the context of Brexit, regulatory alignment refers to the degree to which UK and EU rules governing trade in goods and services will be the same or similar in future.
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What are rules of origin?

These rules allow governments to determine where goods originate from (i.e. where they have been produced or manufactured).
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