The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is the Union Customs Code?

The Union Customs Code (UCC) is the rulebook for managing the external borders of the EU’s customs union. Read this fact to find out more.
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What is the Northern Ireland protocol?

The Northern Ireland protocol, formally called the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland, is the part of the Withdrawal Agreement with the EU that ensures there is no hard border between Ireland and Northern Ireland as a result of the UK leaving the EU.
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What is the Specialised Committee on the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland?

This committee is one of 6 UK-EU committees set up by the Withdrawal Agreement to manage the implementation of different parts of that agreement.
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What was ‘maximum facilitation’ (max fac)?

The maximum facilitation proposals were a suggested solution to the problem of the need to create a border on the island of Ireland.
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Does the Welsh Parliament get a say on the Brexit deal?

As the Brexit deal was negotiated between the EU and the UK Government, there was no meaningful say for the Welsh Parliament or the other devolved legislatures.
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Does the Scottish parliament get a say on the Brexit deal?

As the Brexit deal was negotiated between the EU and the UK Government, there was no meaningful say for the Scottish Parliament or the other devolved legislatures.
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What is a hard border?

It refers to any physical infrastructure, that might be put in place along the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
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Who is Arlene Foster?

She is the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and First Minister in Northern Ireland.
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Who are the DUP?

The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is the main unionist party in Northern Ireland. It reached a ‘confidence and supply’ Agreement with the Conservative…

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What is the Good Friday agreement?

Also known as the Belfast Agreement, the Good Friday Agreement is the peace agreement concluded on 10 April 1998 between the participants in multi-party talks in Northern Ireland.
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