The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is an Australian-style deal with the EU?

When the government talks about an Australian-style deal with the EU, it is talking exclusively about trade. The bulk of EU-Australia trade…

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What is state aid?

An advantage given by national authorities to economic actors that affects trade between member states can be considered state aid under EU…

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What is the Lugano Convention?

The Lugano Convention 2007 is an international treaty negotiated by the EU on behalf of its member states (and by Denmark separately…

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Who is David Frost?

David Frost is Boris Johnson’s Europe advisor and chief negotiator for the talks on the UK’s future relationship with the EU.
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What is the Withdrawal Agreement Bill (WAB)?

This is the implementing bill that gives the Withdrawal Agreement negotiated between the UK and the EU effect in UK law. It…

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What are level playing field measures?

Level playing field measures are often included in trade agreements to ensure that minimum requirements in areas such as labour rights and…

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What is a flextension?

This term describes the flexible extension policy adopted by the EU27 when the UK was first granted an extension to the Article…

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What is a Brexiteer?

This term is shorthand for those who are in favour of Brexit, i.e. those who want the UK to withdraw from the…

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What does Brexodus mean?

This combines ‘Brexit’ and ‘exodus’ to mean a substantial departure of people or companies from the UK as a result of Brexit….

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What is a cliff-edge Brexit?

This was a term used by critics of Brexit to describe the prospect of the UK leaving the European Union without a Withdrawal Agreement.
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What is a Eurosceptic?

This describes a person who is critical of the EU and European integration, generally on grounds of the EU having too much control.
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When did the UK leave the EU?

The UK ceased to be a member of the EU at 11pm on 31 January 2020. After the Withdrawal Agreement was ratified,…

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