The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is net migration?

Net migration is the sum of the number of people who move to the UK to live for at least a year…

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What is state aid?

An advantage given by national authorities to economic actors that affects trade between member states can be considered state aid under EU…

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What is manufacturing?

Manufacturing encompasses all economic activities that transform raw materials into either intermediate goods (such as steel bars) or final products (such as cars)….

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What are EU fishing quotas?

As part of the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), limits are placed on how much fish can be caught in EU (and…

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What is an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)?

An Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is an area of the sea under the territorial ownership of a single country. This area is…

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What are services?

Before the Covid-19 pandemic, services constituted around 81% of the UK economy, or around 30 million jobs. The services sector is broad…

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What are ‘WTO terms’?

WTO terms is a way of describing a trading relationship between countries that is based only on World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules,…

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What is the Immigration Bill?

The Immigration Bill removes the free movement rights of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens in the UK, which derived from the UK’s EU membership.
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What is the Eurogroup?

The Eurogroup is the meeting of the finance ministers of the eurozone member states. It is thus a slightly smaller version of…

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What are coronabonds?

Coronabonds are an idea mooted by several eurozone countries to issue collective debt to combat the economic impact of Covid-19.
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What is the World Trade Organisation (WTO)?

The WTO was set up in 1994 as the result of a major overhaul of the system of trade rules set up…

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What is frictionless trade?

In its purest sense, this refers to the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, resulting in the free movement of goods, services, capital and people between countries, so that it is the same as such activity within a country.
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