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The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What is the Withdrawal Agreement Act?

The Act provided the means for the UK parliament to move law-making powers back to the UK from the EU. Read this fact to find out more.
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What are level playing field measures?

Level playing field measures are often included in trade agreements to ensure that minimum requirements in areas such as labour rights and environmental standards are maintained by both sides.
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What was the Benn Act?

The Benn Act – or the European Union (Withdrawal) (No. 2) Act 2019 – is an Act of Parliament that provided a statutory obligation for the government to prevent a no deal Brexit on 31 October 2019 by requiring in the Prime Minister to ask for an extension of Article 50.
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What is a Brexiteer?

This term is shorthand for those who are in favour of Brexit, i.e. those who advocated for the UK to withdraw from the EU.
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What is a cliff-edge Brexit?

This was a term used by critics of Brexit to describe the prospect of the UK leaving the European Union without a Withdrawal Agreement.
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What is a Eurosceptic?

This describes a person who is critical of the EU and European integration, generally on grounds of the EU having too much control.
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When did the UK leave the EU?

The UK left the EU at 11pm on 31 January 2020. After the Withdrawal Agreement was ratified, the UK entered a transition period running to the end of 2020.
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What happened to the UK’s seats in the European Parliament?

Some of the UK’s seats have been used to address the under-representation of some member states. Read this fact to find out more.
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What was the Brady amendment?

The Brady amendment was an amendment to a government motion on its progress on Brexit that was passed on 29 January 2019.
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What was the ‘Malthouse Compromise’?

The Malthouse Compromise was sold as an attempt to bridge the Brexit divide by the Conservative Parliamentary Party.
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What was a ‘facilitated customs partnership’?

The idea of a facilitated customs partnership was first proposed by Theresa May’s government in May 2018. Read this fact to find out more.
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What does a ‘bespoke deal’ mean?

The idea of a bespoke deal for the UK was that it would be fundamentally different to any existing agreement the EU has with a third country.
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