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The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What was ‘maximum facilitation’ (max fac)?

The maximum facilitation proposals were a suggested solution to the problem of the need to create a border on the island of Ireland.
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What was the Cooper-Letwin Bill?

Yvette Cooper and Oliver Letwin proposed a private members bill in the House of Commons in March 2019, which became the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2019 when it was passed.
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What is a ‘Canada model’?

This refers to a particular form of relationship with the EU, based on the free trade agreement that Canada signed with the EU in 2016.
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What is ‘Canada + (++)’?

A number of pro-Brexit MPs, including David Davis, floated the idea a Canada +(++) model style free trade agreement with the EU.
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What is CETA?

CETA, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, is the name for the free trade agreement between the EU and Canada, signed in 2016.
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What was Chequers?

This refers to the outline of the UK’s future relationship with the EU that was agreed under the government of Theresa May at Chequers.
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What was the Department for Exiting the EU?

The Department for Exiting the EU (DExEU) was set up just after the EU referendum to manage and prepare for the UK’s exit from the EU.
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What is the European Scrutiny Committee?

This is a committee of MPs in the House of Commons with responsibility for assessing the importance of draft legislation submitted by the EU.
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What is the European Statutory Instruments Committee?

This is a relatively new committee of MPs in the House of Commons, created by the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018, to ‘sift’ through any changes made by ministers to the EU law that will be converted into UK law once we leave the EU.
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What is Brexit?

This is the shorthand used to refer to the UK’s exit from the EU. The word initially derived from the Greek crisis in the EU and the possibility that Greece could exit the EU as a result. Hence ‘Grexit’ was the forerunner to ‘Brexit’.
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What does ‘red lines’ mean?

‘Red lines’ in negotiations are areas that one side states it will not compromise on, due to some fundamental interest.
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What was the Mansion House speech?

The Mansion House speech set out Theresa May’s vision for the UK’s future economic partnership with the EU.
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