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The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

What was the ‘meaningful vote’ on Brexit?

In December 2017, the House of Commons voted that MPs would have a ‘final say’ on any Brexit deal negotiated by the UK government with the EU before it could be formally ratified.
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What does ‘red lines’ mean?

‘Red lines’ in negotiations are areas that one side states it will not compromise on, due to some fundamental interest.
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What was the Mansion House speech?

The Mansion House speech set out Theresa May’s vision for the UK’s future economic partnership with the EU.
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What was the Lancaster House speech?

The Lancaster House speech set out Theresa May’s ‘Plan for Britain’, which were her key priorities in the Brexit negotiations.
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Who is Olly Robbins?

Olly Robbins was Prime Minister Theresa May’s Europe Advisor and as such the UK’s chief official negotiator in her government on the UK withdrawal negotiations.
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What is the European Research Group (ERG)?

The ERG is a group within the Parliamentary Conservative Party that provides research and co-ordinates activity for eurosceptic MPs.
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What does a backstop mean?

Read this fact to find out what the backstop means for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in the context of the Brexit negotiations
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What is regulatory alignment?

In the context of Brexit, regulatory alignment refers to the degree to which UK and EU rules governing trade in goods and services will be the same or similar in future.
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What is divergence?

Where Brexit is concerned, it refers to the UK’s ability to change the rules governing different economic sectors once outside of the EU.
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What are rules of origin?

These rules allow governments to determine where goods originate from (i.e. where they have been produced or manufactured).
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What is the Withdrawal Agreement?

In October 2019, the UK and the EU finally agreed a Withdrawal Agreement to end UK membership of the EU, under the terms of Article 50.
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What is the customs union?

A customs union is a trading area in which tariffs between member countries have been abolished and a single, common tariff is applied for trade with countries outside the customs union.
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