The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations

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What is the European Free Trade Association?

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a free trade area comprising Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
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How important is the EU market to UK trade?

The EU is by far the UK’s most important trading partner. Exports to the EU made up 43% of the UK’s total exports in 2019.
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How important is trade with the EU across UK regions?

Different regions and nations within the UK have different trading relationships with the European Union. Unfortunately, our ability to understand these differences…

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Will the UK still have to adhere to EU regulations in case of Brexit?

The UK has said that it wants a free trade agreement with the EU that does not require it to align with EU regulations in future.
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Would leaving the EU reduce migration to the UK?

The UK already has full control over migration from non-EU countries, and this would not be affected by leaving the EU. However,…

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What would the barriers to trading with the EU be if the UK left?

Brexit trade costs between the UK and the EU could rise because of new tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade.
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What are the ‘euro-ins’ and ‘euro-outs’?

There are 19 ‘euro-ins’ and eight ‘euro-outs’ in the EU. The euro-ins are the members states that use the euro as their currency.
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