What is dynamic alignment?
Dynamic alignment is the idea that parties to a trade agreement maintain equivalent regulatory standards to each other in future.
This is a means to ensure fair competition, or a level playing field, for companies on both sides. If one increases its standards, others do so in parallel.
Initially, the EU wanted the UK to sign up to dynamic alignment with EU state aid rules, but the UK was not prepared to accept.
The UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement does not contain dynamic alignment measures.
However, the Northern Ireland Protocol does require dynamic alignment in Northern Ireland with certain EU regulations and directives covered by the Protocol.
The UK government is responsible for ensuring Northern Ireland meets its obligation.
The EU is proposing a Swiss-style arrangement on sanitary and phytosanitary rules, as a way of removing most checks between Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
But the UK has rejected this since it would require dynamic alignment with EU rules.