The authoritative source for independent research on UK-EU relations


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The Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland

Why is there a Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland? Brexit meant that the border between Northern Ireland and Ireland became an external border…

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Article 16 of the Northern Ireland Protocol

A lot of attention has been placed on Article 16 of the Withdrawal Agreement’s Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland. But what is it,…

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The Internal Market Bill and Northern Ireland: where it comes from and what it might mean

What is the internal market? A single market is traditionally thought of as a set of self-governing territories between which barriers to…

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Video & Audio

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Political attitudes in Northern Ireland: Katy Hayward on Joe Biden

10 Jun 2021

Scotland and the future of the Union

26 May 2021

The Facts

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What is the Union Customs Code?

The Union Customs Code (UCC) is the rulebook for managing the external borders of the EU’s customs union. Read this fact to find out more.
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What is the Northern Ireland protocol?

The Northern Ireland protocol, formally called the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland, is the part of the Withdrawal Agreement with the EU that ensures there is no hard border between Ireland and Northern Ireland as a result of the UK leaving the EU.
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What is the Specialised Committee on the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland?

This committee is one of 6 UK-EU committees set up by the Withdrawal Agreement to manage the implementation of different parts of that agreement.
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